Dengue fever is also called “breakbone fever” or “dandy fever”. It is a mosquito-borne viral infection. transmitted by “Aedes Mosquito” that is infected by “dengue virus”. It is found in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue is the most prevalent disease condition in India with an increasing number of cases year by year. Studies say that almost greater than 300 times of cases have been reported from the year 2012-2015.
The dengue virus is not contagious and cannot be spread from one person to another person. It can be contracted from the bite of a mosquito that has previously bitten an infected person. The incubation period for the dengue virus usually ranges from 3 to 15 days before the symptoms appear in the infected person.
Dengue fever can be classified into different severities such as:
This stage hardly leads to fatal complications. At this stage, the symptoms will be disappeared after seven days. The symptoms of mild dengue fever include high fever, body rashes, muscle and joint aches, intense headache, nausea, and vomiting.
The symptoms of DHF may be mild on the onset but worsen gradually. Mild dengue symptoms along with some severe symptoms such as bleeding nose, bleeding gums, blood spots under the skin, clammy skin, and sensitive skin are observed. DHF can result in damaged lymph and blood vessels, decreased platelet count, internal bleeding, and weak pulse rate. DHF can result in death if untreated.
The progression of DHF symptoms can lead to massive bleeding, shock, and death which is referred to as dengue sock syndrome. The symptoms include mild dengue fever, DHF, and additionally sudden hypotension, heavy bleeding, regular vomiting, intense stomach pain, and disorientation.
Accurate diagnosis is essential to diagnose dengue fever as most of the symptoms are similar to malaria and typhoid. The laboratory tests that are performed for the diagnosis of dengue fever include:
Complete blood count test (CBC): It is performed to measure the concentration of white blood cell count, red blood cell count and platelets in the body.
Reverse transcriptase-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test: It is performed to identify the dengue virus.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test: It is performed to identify the count of antibodies that are present in the blood.
Hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI assay): It is performed to identify the serum antibodies.
Liver function tests: These are carried out to determine the elevations in serum albumin and transaminases.
There is no specific for dengue fever treatment. Depending on the severity of the condition, rehydrating fluids and salts are given to the patients. Tylenol (Paracetamol) can be used to treat pains and high fever. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin and ibuprofen can cause severe internal bleeding if used in the treatment of dengue. So, medicine for dengue should be given only under the supervision of a doctor.
In case of severe dengue forms, intravenous fluid supplementation, blood transfusions are given.
In early 2016, the first dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) by Sanofi Pasteur is registered.
Protecting from mosquito bites can help in preventing dengue fever. The best methods for prevention include:
Depending on the severity of the condition, rehydrating fluids and salts are given to the patients. Tylenol (Paracetamol) can be used to treat pains and high fever. intravenous fluid supplementation, blood transfusions are given in case of severe dengue.
Medicine for dengue should be taken only under the supervision of a doctor. Tylenol (Paracetamol) can be used to treat pains and high fever. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin and ibuprofen can cause severe internal bleeding if used in the treatment of dengue.