Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. The major cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection called UTI (urinary tract infection). This bladder infection can become serious if left untreated as it travels to the vital organs such as kidneys.

Cystitis is not gender specific. Approximately 80% of all urinary tract infections are caused by Escherichia coli.

Interstitial cystitis- is also called painful bladder syndrome. This is a chronic condition in which there would be a pressure build up, pain in the bladder and sometimes pelvic pain too.


There are many causes, but the major cause is due to the infection when bacteria enter from the external genitourinary structures.


The common signs and symptoms of cystitis include;

  • Low-grade fever

  • Pungent smell in the urine

  • Urgency to urine frequently

  • Discomfort in the pelvic area

  • Presence of blood in the urine

  • Passing small amounts of urine

  • Burning sensation during urination

In young children with cystitis, there may be signs of bed wetting during day and night times.

Risk factors

Women are more likely to develop bladder infections; the main reason is the anatomy of the women’s urinary system.

Risk factors include:

  • Inserting tampons

  • Menopausal phase

  • Sexually active women

  • Incomplete bladder emptying

  • Other kidney related problems

  • Frequent or vigorous sexual activity

  • Certain drugs such as birth control pills


Your doctor would take the medical history and perform a urine analysis. It may be a laboratory test or simply a dipstick test. A urine culture or urine cauterized specimen is performed to detect the type of bacteria present in the urine. If you are a person who is frequently hit by cystitis, then your doctor would order for further more tests such as an x-ray, or a cystoscopy of the bladder.

Call your doctor immediately if you have cystitis symptoms that are common in leading to kidney infection:

  • If you have back pain

  • If you develop painful urination

  • If you have frequent chills and fever

  • If you experience nausea and vomiting

In many cases, if the cystitis is mild, it resolves itself within few days. If it persists for a longer time, then you must discuss with your doctor, he/she would choose an appropriate cystitis treatment plan.

An antibiotic course for three days is prescribed or 7 to 10 days course is prescribed based on the symptoms of cystitis.

You would experience symptomatic improvement after a day of using antibiotics itself. But you must not discontinue the course of antibiotics till it is completed.

Treatment for interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis treatment includes:

Physical therapy

Physical therapy relieves pain that is associated with muscle tenderness, or any muscle abnormalities near the pelvic floor.

Oral medications
Tricyclic antidepressants
Nerve stimulation
The techniques used for nerve stimulation includes:
Sacral nerve stimulation
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
Home remedies for treating cystitis
  • Avoiding alcohol

  • Taking painkillers

  • Drinking plenty of fluids

  • Refraining from sex while infected

  • Having a sitz bath for 15 to 20 minutes, to help prevent pain and discomfort

  • Using heat pad possibly minimizes the pressure on the bladder or any sort of pain.

The following measure may help prevent cystitis:

  • Wearing cotton underwear

  • Using lubricant while having sex

  • Emptying the bladder completely

  • Practicing good hygiene after sex

  • Wiping the anus from front to back

  • Avoiding tight pants and underwear

  • Avoiding the postponement of urine passage